Monday, March 16, 2020
International Criminal Law Example International Criminal Law Ã¢â¬â Coursework Example International Criminal Law The international criminal law prohibits some categories of conduct identified as grave atrocitiesand ensures that the perpetrators of criminals get accountable for their actions. The law principally covers matters relating to war crimes, genocide, aggression crimes, and crimes against humanity. It specifically deals with person subjects. The criminal law mostly includes the prohibitions addressed, and the penal sanctions for the violations of the prohibitions put in place by the different states (Schabas 7). The International Criminal Law came into being after the World War 1. After the war, the international crime tribunal envisaged the perpetrators of the war crimes. For instance, the Treaty of Versailles designed in trying Wilhelm of Germany. The Second World War signified the international tribunalÃ¢â¬â¢s move to try not only crime wars but also crimes against humanities. As a subset of the International Law, International Criminal Law developed und er the 1946 Statute, Article 38(1) of the Court of Justice. International law comprised of general principles of law, customary international law and the treaties (Bantekas and Nash 16). International criminal law developed to deliver justice to victims and to guide on the prosecution of serious crimes like crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes (Schabas 12). Individual Criminal Responsibility is the liability associated with individual violations of the application of 1968 UN Convention and the Common Article 3. The Hungarian courts applied the international law in the prosecution of international offenses defined by the International Criminal Law. The three bodies are intertwined connected in advocating international human rights (Bantekas and Nash 27). The International Criminal Court is a permanent tribunal that prosecutes individuals for crimes against genocide, humanity, and war crimes. The court is significant in maintaining international justice and, therefore, gi ves authority to the bodies of the international law on treatment of individual regarding humanitarian law and human rights. It covers jurisdiction only where the subject is a citizen of a state party or when a crime occurs in the country of a member state party (Schabas 37). Bantekas, Ilias, and Nash, Susan. International Criminal Law. London: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007. Print.Schabas, William. International Criminal Law. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Pub, 2012. Print.
Friday, February 28, 2020
The Music & Entertainment Manager - project - Research Proposal Example In recent times, one of these issues can be said to be online music piracy. The piracy of music generally refers to the act of copying and distributing copies of music for personal gain without the consent of legitimate copyright owners of the music (Kreitz & Niemela, 2010). Online music piracy can therefore be said to be the use of the internet or other online portals for music piracy activities (Chase, Mulvenon & Hachigian, 2006). Even though the effect of online music piracy can be appreciated to be vast and widespread, the research seeks to put a very specific spotlight on the entrepreneurial investment in the music industry. In effect, the research will look specifically at the impact or effect of online music piracy on the entrepreneurship and funding of music projects in the UK. As noted by Duckworth (2005), music as an industry is a well branded business which require a lot of financial investment to succeed. But as to whether the issue of online music piracy is a disincentiv e for entrepreneurs is a question that the research will explore. The aim of the study will be to find the direct effect of online music piracy on music entrepreneurship and funding of music projects in UK. To achieve this aim, the following specific objectives will be targeted. There is a historical context to the effect of online music piracy on sales where The Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, which is part of the European CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s Joint Research Centre, published a report suggesting that online music piracy does not hurt sales (Ernesto, 2013). Since this publication, there have been several other academic and professional discourses to debate the real economic impact of online music piracy on the music industry as a whole. The proposed study there comes with the significance of contributing to the ongoing public discourse. The study will add much economic contexts to the subject by looking at how
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Modelling Operational Risk by AMA - Essay Example Lavin and Scherrish (1999) stressed that these statistical procedures are always expressed as the random vector of data based on risk cells that have specified density for a given vector of the parameter. Ã Shevchenko (2011) associated that Bayesian inference to a number of advantages, for which they are used to model operational risk. A typical example of this is what Embrechts and Puccetti (2008) noted to be the consistency and convenience associated with the statistical framework used in quantifying uncertainties. As a quantitative approach, the outcomes with Bayesian inference are always guaranteed to be the same whenever the similar variables are used. This makes the outcomes with Bayesian inference highly reliable and consistent among a similar set of operational variables within a bank (Lambrigger, Shevchenko, and WÃ ¼thrich, 2007 and Neil, Fenton and Tailor, 2005). What is more, Shevchenko (2011) acknowledged the fact that the Bayesian inference is highly accommodating and versatile as it incorporates expert opinions with historical internal and external data used in various operational risk estimations (Burnecki, Kukla and Taylor, 2005). Ã Even though the Bayesian inference has several strengths and advantages for usage, Shevchenko (2010) lamented that the approachÃ¢â¬â¢s over-reliance on scenario analysis and expert judgment acts as a major setback for usage within a good number of firms. Adding to this, Wasserman (1997) and Alderweireld, Garcia and LÃ ©onard (2006) agreed that even though both scenario analysis and expert judgement provide important information for forecasting and decision making, banks with the relatively limited dataset and those that only started a business may not have enough of these to use the Bayesian inference.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Case Study Example Considering Jon was not totally on board with holding the meeting at Monte Sereno, giving in to a rate of $99, a complementary cocktail fair, and a free conference service is too much for a simple hotel representative. To negotiate each of JonÃ¢â¬â¢s demands further and end with a win-win conclusion, Julia can comprehend JonÃ¢â¬â¢s primary interests or concerns. At the beginning, Julia had simply prepared for questions about the $1,000 conferencing service and $110 hotel rooms, which she gets from regular customers on a virtually everyday basis. With Jon, Julia has to see the bigger picture by investigating with JonÃ¢â¬â¢s staff or simply asking him directly about the benefits of a complementary cocktail fair when the meeting will end in a week. If anything, the cocktail should come at the end of their stay at the hotel and not at the beginning. This is an example of how important knowing a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s primary interests furthers negotiations progresses (Lazer,
Thursday, January 23, 2020
The book Ã¢â¬Å"Whoops! Why everyone owes everyone and no one can payÃ¢â¬ by John Lanchester, will be analyzed in this essay in order to look at the wider geopolitical banking strategy, the roles and development of international institutions and strategies that have lead to the current economic crisis. At the beginning of the book, the author identifies two key events which created the environment for such a crisis to occur: the Cold war and the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. These two events are pointed out because as he sees it, the cold war provided the capitalist nations with an opposite system to compare to, and its advantages in terms of social justice and peoples rights were incomparable. However after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Ã¢â¬Å"capitalism began a victory party that lasted twenty yearsÃ¢â¬ (J.Lanchester, p15), and as at its core capitalism is not an equal distributor of wealth, in addition to many countries after the fall abandoning their focus on social justice and focusing on growth, which was not sustainable. Here the author starts to lead the reader to considering how the strategies of society as a whole and key agent of the financial industry were formation of the environment in which they were. A proportion of the blame must lie with certain agents of the industry and their lack of actions. Deregulation had gone too far and governments were too slow or unwilling to act on time. An example given is when five major banks (Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Lehman Brothers, Bear Sterns, and Morgan Stanley) in 2004 were allowed to cut the amount of capital they had to hold as a reserve against potential loses. (J.Lanchester, p.163). The author points out how successful lobbying had become and that those banks at one point wer... ...100). These three banks had to all be bailed out. This situation incorporates the key four elements of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, and is one of many. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s prevailing theme is how the strategy adopted by various agents of the financial industry has trickled down to the society. The author upon mentioning the creation of securitization, several times notes that this is what Ã¢â¬Å"broke bankingÃ¢â¬ . This change in strategy of banks and the society as a whole led to many changes. The lender and the borrower being separated and the loan sold-off is a key flaw and arguably, speaking in general terms can be largely attributed to the systematic errors existence which played a large role in the most recent crisis. Throughout the book there is a feeling that the author sees the system as not being beneficial to the end consumer when fundamentally this should be the opposite.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
His writing shows that he is familiar with the thought process of a madman, leaving some o believe that he himself was In fact insane, but If he were, could he have the ability to describe such dark thoughts and deeds In detailed graphic account? Most of Pope's short stories revolve around death, gloom and the mental state of his main character/ characters. More often than not, the main character of his stories is thought to have a certain degree of insanity. The Ã¢â¬Å"Tell- Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ does not disappoint.The story follows the formula that Edgar Allan Poe perfected: death, gloom, and mental instability. Some believe It Is the narrator's Insanity that causes him to dismember he old man Into several pieces and place him under the floorboards while others question whether or not the main character was really insane. In order for one to be able to come to a plausible conclusion concerning the mental health of the unnamed narrator one must know what insanity is, the medical defini tion of insanity, and compare both definitions to the mental state of the narrator in the story.So what exactly is insanity? The word insanity was actually termed by lawyers within the legal profession. Insanity Is a relatively new defense In the united States, as It was not restricted until around 1849, the time that Edgar Allan wrote the story Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ . Around the time the story was written there were many cases in America being tried where the defendants had plead not guilty by reason of insanity.Some think that Poe was paying close attention to the trial, as his story seemed to be a confession in which the narrator confessed the murder, but has all intentions of getting off by alluding to be While most would argue It was all an act, there are certain aspects In the story that allude that the narrator may have not been pretending to be Insane. The legal deflation of Insanity Is, Ã¢â¬Å"a mental Illness of such a severe nature that a person cannot distingu ish fantasy from reality, cannot conduct his/her affairs due to psychosis, or is subject to uncontrollable impulsive behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Hoses).Within the medical profession, there is no definition for the word insanity. It is not a diagnosis that is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as ADSM. What Is diagnosed in the ADSM are various mental problems that can cause an Individual's behavior to change, sometimes leading them to commit a crime depending on their diagnosed mental illness. Based upon the clues provided in the story Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell- Tale Heart,Ã¢â¬ one can conclude that the narrator is suffering from the mental disorder of paranoid schizophrenia.Psychiatrists believe that when a person suffers from paranoia they most likely have paranoid schizophrenia. People with paranoia tend to believe that they have super sensitive hearing. They hear Inanimate object talking to them or voices that don't auditory hallucinations, violence, al oofness, etc. Paranoid schizophrenia is Ã¢â¬Å"one of several types of schizophrenia, a chronic mental illness in which reality is interpreted abnormally (psychosis).The classic features of paranoid schizophrenia are having beliefs that have no basis in reality (delusions) and hearing things that arena real (auditory hallucinations)Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Paranoid SchizophreniaÃ¢â¬ ). The story begins with the narrator stating Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ But why will you say that I am mad? The disease has sharpened my senses-not destroyed- not dulled them I heard things in the heaven and in the earthÃ¢â¬ (Poe 40). Within reading the first few lines of the story, the narrator has revealed to the audience two symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia, anxiety and auditory hallucinations. These symptoms, especially his disposition to dispute, are manifested not only when he Ã¢â¬Å"arose and argued about triflesÃ¢â¬ but also throughout the narrationÃ¢â¬ ¦ Obviously, the prisoner's captors have named his c rime for what it is, the act of an anxiety-ridden madman; this is the argument that the narrator- illustrating another symptom of schizophrenia, lack of insight- rejects as erroneous, impertinent, absurdly false; this is the thesis to which he attempts to provide the antithesis Ã¢â¬ (Zimmerman).In regards to the medical aspect, the anxiety reveals itself in the way that the narrator is attempting to give his side of the story. He has admitted to his extremely nervous behavior, yet later in the paragraph states, Ã¢â¬Å"Hearken! And observe how healthily- how calmly, I can tell you the whole story' (Poe 40). The audience should also notice within the first paragraph where the legal definition of insanity could also be applied. It is here where his words begin to contradict themselves.It is here where he starts to demonstrate a mad man, by accusing the audience of coming to the conclusion that he is mad. He then goes on to imply that if he were mad, he Ã¢â¬Å"would be out of control , Ã¢â¬ ¦ Profoundly illogical, and not even recognize the implications of his actionsÃ¢â¬ (Benumb). As the narrator divulges information about murder, the symptoms of violence, anger, and delusion also appear, further evidence to back up the claim that the narrator is a paranoid schizophrenic. It was open-wide, wide open- and I grew furious as I gazed upon itÃ¢â¬ ¦ Lat was the beating of the old man's heart. It increased my fury, as the beating of a drum stimulates the soldier into courageÃ¢â¬ (Poe 42). Here the narrator has shown the symptom of anger. The old man has done nothing to the narrator to upset him. The narrator claims it is the beating of the old man's heart and his dull blue eye that causes him to grow furious and it is what ultimately causes him to become violent towards the old man and end his life.The symptom of delusion appears throughout the whole story from the beginning. We have the narrator being delusional in thinking that he knows what the audience is thinking about him. He is delusional when he states , Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ For it was not the old man who vexed me, but his Evil EyeÃ¢â¬ (Poe 41). When you combine the delusion, anger, anxiety, and violence, it is very easy to see how one can come to the conclusion that the narrator is in fact not of sound mind.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Interpersonal Communication in the film Fight Club Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re the most interesting Ã¢â¬Ësingle servingÃ¢â¬â¢ friend I have ever met.Ã¢â¬ These are some of the first words that initiated the close, yet unorthodox relationship between Jack and Tyler Durden in the movie Fight Club. The film follows the narrator (indirectly referred to as Jack) and the entire movie takes place from his perspective. This is an important factor when analyzing the relationship between him and Tyler, because we only see the events through JackÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. The relationship between these key characters is a reflection of Mark KnappÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental model as shown in Adler Rodman (2012). (p.205) In the film the audience can clearly see the three major stages, coming together,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite the original intent of having a temporary living arrangement, Jack doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the need to leave TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s house, despite the houseÃ¢â¬â¢s level of disrepair. They integrate into each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, in this way they become very close friends not unlike brothers. They take the same night job, and they lie for each other when they have to explain each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s wounds from fight club. After first meeting Tyler, and fighting at the fight club every Saturday night, Jack becomes cured of his insomnia. Through his experience of feeling more alive when he fights at fight club, Jack feels form of enlightenment. He integrates TylerÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-materialistic philosophies into his own psyche; this leads him to have a false sense of a higher level of existence when compared to his fellow humans. Tyler senseÃ¢â¬â¢s Jacks false sense of enlightenment, and in order to pull Jack from his delusions he shows Jack what living really means. He takes Jacks hand, kisses it and pours lye (a key ingredient in making soap) onto the back of Jack hand. This initiates a painful chemical burn, from the saliva from the kiss and the lye, on Jacks hand and Jack rejects the pain. Jack uses the meditation techniques he learned in his support groups to shut out the pain. Tyler jerks him from his meditation telling Jack Ã¢â¬Å"This is the greatest moment of your life and youÃ¢â¬â¢re missing it!Ã¢â¬ Tyler desires for Jack to accept the pain, to acknowledge he hisShow MoreRelatedInterpersonal1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHunter Davis-Interpersonal Communication Fight Club Fight Club, a 1999 American film, is a brilliantly constructed film of escaping reality and dealing with pain in the famous art form of fighting. Director David Flincher adapted the film from the 1996 novel. Main actors, Brad Pitt as Tyler Durden and Edward Norton as the narrator, act excellently as they deal with their reality by celebrating violence in underground fight clubs. 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